Germany should fund Namibia's land restitution

07 August 2020 | Columns

Henning Melber

Nearly 30 years after starting land reform, Namibia's distribution of land ownership is still skewed.

This is a colonial legacy. It is high time to return land to dispossessed communities. As a former colonial power guilty of terrible bloodshed, Germany should contribute to making that happen.

National statistics document Namibia's unequitable pattern of land ownership. Fewer than 5 000 (predominantly white) commercial farmers own 48% of the land. About 35% of the land is reserved for communal use by indigenous communities. More than 70% of the population depend on it. The state holds another 17% of the land.

This is inconsistent with stated national policy. The government's declared intention is to transfer land to descendants of those who were dispossessed in colonial times. Its agenda includes resettlement of indigenous people as well as the voluntary transfer of commercial agricultural land. Not much progress has been made, however.

Land ownership remains heavily skewed in favour of the privileged few, who now include members of the political class.

Germany's responsibility

As a former colonial power, Germany bears a responsibility to support redressing the situation. From 1884 to 1915, the colony was called German South West Africa.

German colonial rule was very brutal. The administration encouraged whites to set up farms on indigenous land. Resistance by local Ovaherero and Nama communities against forced expulsions triggered the first genocide of the 20th century in the years 1904 to 1908.

The Damara were affected too. Survivors were detained in concentration camps and forced into native reserves. White farmers also systematically eliminated San communities. Land grabs continued after South Africa occupied the territory in 1915 and in 1919 it became the mandatory power. Afrikaans-speaking white farmers moved to the “fifth province”. Expulsions and resettlements of indigenous communities continued until the 1960s under South Africa's Bantustan policy, which set aside reserves for specific ethnic groups. These areas were euphemistically called “tribal homelands”.

The liberation movement's failure

Independence was supposed to liberate black communities and restore their dignity. In 1990, the liberation movement, Swapo, formed the new government of a sovereign nation. Land ownership hardly changed, however, even though there was a promising start with a national land conference in 1991. Unfortunately, the redistribution of land to the dispossessed failed miserably. The process was slow and far too often benefitted politically connected people who had no ancestral claims.

Dissatisfaction with the failed reform led to a second land conference in October 2018. It paid more attention to ancestral land claims than the first one.

In February 2019, a 15-member Commission on Ancestral Land was appointed. In December 2019, the commission recommended giving priority to the dispossessed.

It stated: “Colonialism stripped people of their dignity and cultural rights and other fundamental rights, and [this] requires urgent systematic redress.”

The commission suggested relying on “reparations from the former colonial powers” to strengthen land reform and restore social justice.

A role for Germany

The two former colonial powers are Germany and South Africa. Their legacy is certainly appalling. The South African government, however, is itself the result of a freedom struggle and refuses to be held accountable for the former apartheid regime's abusiveness. Of course, South Africa's involvement does not lessen Germany's responsibility in any way.

In mid-2015, a spokesperson of Germany's foreign office acknowledged, after persistent questioning from a journalist, that imperial warfare in Namibia was tantamount to genocide. Since then, Germany and Namibia have been negotiating how to come to terms with the persisting injustice. Though Germany's federal government has never agreed to reparations and avoids using the term, the Namibian commission's proposal deserves consideration. Germany could indeed provide funds for land redistribution. The money could be used to compensate expropriated farmers, even if they do not wish to sell their land.

The legal foundation for such land redistribution is in place. While the country's constitution confirms that any property titles that existed at the time of independence are legally valid, article 16 states clearly: “The State or a competent body or organ authorised by law may expropriate property in the public interest, subject to the payment of just compensation, in accordance with requirements and procedures to be determined by an Act of Parliament”.

A new start

Funding a redistribution and expropriation policy along these lines would be a sensible first step. Next, Germany should then co-finance indispensable investments in rural infrastructure and agricultural extension services.

The idea would be to empower local communities in ways that allow them to fully benefit from re­settlement. The Namibian government, for its part, would have to ensure that only the descendants of the dispossessed benefit from redistribution, and not politically-connected elites.

Both the German and the Namibian governments would be wise to invest in this kind of policy.

It would not only facilitate reconciliation between Germany and Namibia, but also between groups in Namibia - the truly dispossessed and those only pretending to be.

Namibia would get a new start. The destructive legacy of skewed land ownership would be overcome.

Stolen land, stolen identity

As Namibia's Commission on Ancestral Land correctly stated, however, “the term reparation is used in a wide sense” in international law. It can stand for any measure that serves “to redress the various types of harms victims may have suffered”.

Land is identity and stolen land translates into stolen identity.

Property rights that were granted by a legal system that was only established after colonial land grabs may remain valid, but they are inherently unjust.

It is necessary to right the wrongs of the past. The current talks between Germany and Namibia offer an historic opportunity to do so.

*Henning Melber is director emeritus of the Dag Hammarskjöld Foundation in Uppsala, Sweden and an extraordinary professor at the University of Pretoria and the University of the Free State in Bloemfontein. He has been a member of Swapo since 1974.

Similar News


Spread your financial wings

4 days ago - 22 September 2020 | Columns

Irene-Mari van der Walt I don’t know much about money but I know that they say it can’t buy happiness. I also know that people...

Self-care wrapped in a bow

1 week ago - 15 September 2020 | Columns

Justicia Shipena I thought shooting stars were a myth. They may be astronomically proven, and relentlessly depicted in popular culture, but one had never...

Who is an authentic leader?

2 weeks ago - 11 September 2020 | Columns

Modestus HDarkness is the absence of light, and truth can never be hidden. It is at this juncture that one should know the authentic leader,...

Towards creating a regional tourism bubble

2 weeks ago - 11 September 2020 | Columns

ROBIN TYSONThe grand dream of inviting wealthy international tourists to Namibia is still being dreamed. The vision of hundreds or even thousands of wealthy international...

The media is NOT your enemy!

2 weeks ago - 08 September 2020 | Columns

ESTER KAMATII have no idea where everybody gets the idea that the media is a huge monster that you should not associate yourself with and...

Growing up

3 weeks ago - 01 September 2020 | Columns

Enzo Amuele A common phrase met with so many mixed emotions, everyone has their say about growing up. When you are a toddler, all...

Enjoy the little things in life

3 weeks ago - 01 September 2020 | Columns

Edmone Schollij Most of us felt that 2020 was going to be our year and we were excited for the new memories. When the clock...

Inspiring women to show up authentically

4 weeks ago - 28 August 2020 | Columns

PATTY OLIVIERShowing up during a crisis isn’t always easy. It demands an open mind, perspective, an acceptance that things will and must change, resilience, and...

My Zone asked learners from Dawid Bezuidenhoudt High School...

1 month - 25 August 2020 | Columns

Romeo MorkelFor me, wearing a mask every day has become a habit although in the beginning it was irritating but I eventually got used to...

The kind of temple I believe in

1 month - 25 August 2020 | Columns

Justicia Shipena “I know you will build us a world I am excited to see.”Isn’t it amazing how a place can inform and shape who...

Latest News

Government wage index increases in...

1 day - 25 September 2020 | Economics

PHILLEPUS UUSIKU The government wage index stood at 133.0 basis points during the second quarter of 2020, an increase of 0.9 percent, compared to an...

No English cucumbers will be...

1 day - 25 September 2020 | Economics

ELLANIE SMITNo English cucumbers will be imported into Namibia until further notice. This was announced to horticulture producers earlier this week by Namibia Agronomic Board...

Millennials thrive in learning organisations

1 day - 25 September 2020 | People

Chaze NalisaMillennials, those born between 1981 and 1996, are dynamic, with a wealth of potential to contribute to the transition, sustainability and growth of an...

Attitude is everything

1 day - 25 September 2020 | People

Mariselle StofbergWith his people relationships and excellent communication skills, Chris Matthee understands the importance of listening and communicating clearly and with the appropriate level of...

Attitude is everything

1 day - 25 September 2020 | Banking

Mariselle StofbergWith his people relationships and excellent communication skills, Chris Matthee understands the importance of listening and communicating clearly and with the appropriate level of...

Without a trace

1 day - 25 September 2020 | Crime

ELLANIE SMIT WINDHOEKAs the family of Shannon Darlikie Wasserfall battles to deal with the trauma of her disappearance - without a trace - nearly...

DBN seeks interim replacement for...

1 day - 25 September 2020 | Business

OGONE TLHAGEWINDHOEKThe Development Bank of Namibia (DBN) will find a temporary replacement for its senior manager for corporate communications Jerome Mutumba until his return from...

Economy loses nearly N$6bn in...

1 day - 25 September 2020 | Economics

Jo-Maré Duddy WINDHOEKAbout N$5.7 billion less flowed through the economy in the second quarter due to the lockdown and related Covid-19 measures...

DBN Innovation Award winner makes...

1 day - 25 September 2020 | Economics

PHILLEPUS UUSIKUWinner of the Development Bank of Namibia (DBN) 2019 Innovation Award, Pulsar Electronics, is making strides with a DBN enterprise development and support package...

Load More